How Loowatt’s Waterless Energy-Generating Toilet Technology Works

The Loowatt toilet uses a patented, simple and efficient sealing technology to contain human waste within biodegradable film, with a unique odor-inhibiting system. The waste is then stored in a cartridge for periodic emptying, which can be weekly or daily, depending upon level of usage and capacity requirements.

The Loowatt sealing unit can be built into toilets of any shape, size and specification, using off-the-shelf parts and local materials to maximize value. For example, the Roso toilet on the right, is a new version of our toilet in which our hardware is built into an off-shelf injection-moulded plastic pedestal. The Roso exemplifies our technology’s important ability to adapt to toilets of many shapes and sizes.

Loowatt toilets use a biodegradable film to perform a waterless flush.
Loowatt ROSO toilet
The Roso Toilet, Madagascar 2016. Roso means “move or go forward” in Malagasy—an idea we associate with progress on improving access to sanitation.”
Loowatt ROSO toilet
The Loowatt toilet provides a safe and secure place to go, in particular for women and children.
Madagascar girl toilet loowatt cubicle

Loowatt is well suited wherever there’s a need for a high standard of user experience along with an eco-friendly, off grid and financially sustainable Loo. There are many benefits.


The sealing and storage system is easy to use and does not require electricity. It safely contains material while the treatment system reduces servicing time and equipment requirements for the operator.


The toilet is designed for linking to anaerobic digestion technology, to provide a source of biogas for cooking, electricity, and other applications. This creates the exciting opportunity to offset capital costs with energy production.


The system reverses the cost of disposal, turning waste treatment into a profit opportunity.


The Loo delivers high-standard sanitation without the need for electricity or water-based infrastructure.

High Standards

The efficient and odorless Loo provides visitors a pleasant experience compared with existing products.

Our toilet seals waste into biodegradable lining in the most effective and efficient way possible.
Human waste + Anaerobic digestion = Biogas + Fertilizer

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biological process in which organic waste is consumed by micro-organisms in oxygen-free environments. It is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and to release energy. As it decomposes, the waste releases biogas.

Biogas is composed of methane (CH4, 65%), carbon dioxide (CO2, 33%) and other trace gases (2%). For comparison, the natural gas supplied to ordinary gas stoves and boilers is about 80% methane. When biogas is burned, the methane converts back to CO2 and water vapor, so the gas is clean burning.

Fertilizer is the other by product of AD. The microbial process homogenizes the nutrients making them easier for plants to access. The output is a semi-liquid manure that is easily separated into liquid plant food and fiber-rich manure that’s perfect for digging in under newly planted crops.

Close up gas flame
Biogas is produced from the Loowatt toilet system through anaerobic digestion.
Digesters can be built at any scale, and there are many established methods and configurations. In this example, the biogas drum floats up and down inside the digestate.
Small-scale digesters like these are useful to illustrate the basic principles of digestion.
Loowatt digestor technology
We believe that waterless toilets and clean energy are a winning combination.
The Loowatt System

It’s one thing to understand the exciting potential of a value-generating toilet system, but extracting that value in real world situations is entirely another.

Loowatt has developed models to calculate system outputs and their potential value to reflect where the system is installed. Considerations include number of users, types of waste, and energy applications. Alongside this model, we are developing our methodology for system and value optimization.

Chris Holden Designer CAD technology
Loowatt’s Head of Design, Chris Holden, is designing the waste transport system for Madagascar.
The Loowatt team employs whole systems thinking in designing the waste treatment system from user experience to value-generation.
Loowatt Treatment System
All toilets depend upon systems: servicing, processing, inputs and outputs.